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How to Achieve Quebec Independence
 

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Footnotes

 

I have linked to source material available on the internet for as many of the book's footnotes as possible.

 

1. William Johnson, McKenty Live, CFCF-TV; December 19, 1988.

2. Quebec’s primary language law, The Charter of the French Language, is commonly referred to in English as “Bill 101” and, in French, as “la loi 101". Charter of the French language, R.S.Q. c. C-11.

3. Stephane Dion; Straight Talk (McGill-Queen‘s University Press, 1999), p. xxi

4. Jack Jedwab, ‘New’ and Not so New Anglos: An Analysis of Quebec Anglophone opinion on the province’s socio-political realities, The Missisquoi Reports, vol. 2, The Mississquoi Institute, August 2001.

5. Hubert Bauch, “Bill 101 paved way for peace”, Montreal Gazette, August 25, 2007.

6. New’ and Not so New Anglos: An Analysis of Quebec Anglophone opinion on the province’s socio-political realities, The Missisquoi Reports, vol. 2, page 2.

7. Statistics Canada, Census of Canada, 1971-2001, Anglophone figures cited in Jack Jedwab, "Going Forward: The Evolution of Quebec’s English-speaking Community", Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, page 7.

8. Jack Jedwab, “Going Forward, the Evolution of Quebec’s English-speaking Community”, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages (2004), pp. 32-3.

9. This subject was first broached by the author in the November 14, 1988 edition of Exchange, a publication of the New York based Freedom House. Entitled "The Doctrine of Preponderance of Blood in South Africa, the Soviet Union and Quebec,” the essay was introduced by Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Jimmy Carter’s National Security Adviser.

10. Editorial. "One law for all", Montreal Gazette, December 19, 2004.

11. Act No. 18 of 1936; Statutes of the Union of South Africa; p. 136.  See page 6 of "The Doctrine of Preponderance of Blood in South Africa, the Soviet Union and Quebec.”

12. Moller v. Keimoes School Committee & Another, 1911 A.D. 635, at 643

13. “Language heats up at Bill 86 sessions”, Montreal Gazette, May 27, 1993, p. A4.

14. Editorial, “A question of who imposes the limit”, Montreal Gazette, December 5, 1988.

15. Editorial, “Attention! The sky is falling!”, Montreal Gazette, December 17, 1992.

16. Indian Act ( R.S., 1985, c. I-5 ) “Persons entitled to be registered.” Note that prior to 1985, a person’s father had to be Indian in order for the status to be handed down to the child.

17. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Sub-Committee on Indian Women and the Indian Act; September 9, 1982; p. 2:14.

18. Editorial, “The pitfalls of racial purity”, Montreal Gazette, March 19, 1994.

19. (1994), 89 F.T.R. 249 cited in Charter and Human Rights Litigation, Volume XIII, No. 2, 2006, p. 985.

20. Ibid., p. 984.

21. Section 63.2 of the Canadian Human rights Act used to read: “Nothing in this Act affects any provision of the Indian Act or any provision made under or pursuant to that Act.”

22. P. Hogg, Constitutional Law in Canada, (Canada Law Book), at 1109 cited in Charter and Human Rights Litigation, Op. Cit., p. 985.

23. The Charter of Rights and Freedoms, A guide for Canadians, (Department of the Secretary of State), 1987, p. 23.

24. Gosselin (Tutor of) v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2005] 1 S.C.R. 238, 2005 SCC 15.

25. Gosselin, para. 2.

26. Anthony J. Hall, The American Empire and the Fourth World (McGill-Queen’s University Press), 2005, p. 498.

27. http://www.shannonthunderbird.com/indian_act.htm 

28. University of Lethbridge, Course outline Native Sovereignty in Canada, an Introduction to the Constitutional Question, (2005) found at http://people.uleth.ca/~hall/spring2005/week6.htm

29. Editorial, “Might spark new round of language unrest”, Montreal Gazette, March 30, 2005.

30. Editorial, “A language ruling we can live with”, Montreal Gazette, April 1, 2005.

31. Claude Bélanger, "The Constitutional Act, 1867, the Confederation Debates and Provincial Autonomy, Department of History", Marionopolis College (26 February 2001).

32. R. MacGregor Dawson, The Government of Canada (University of Toronto Press) 1966, p. 235. Or, p. 217 in the 1970 edition.

33. Pierre Trudeau, Debates of the Senate; March 30, 1988, p. 2997.

34. The Confederation Debates refers to a collection of transcripts from the parliamentary debates in the Provincial Parliament of Canada occurring over several years, starting on February 3, 1865.

35. R. MacGregor Dawson, The Government of Canada, University of Toronto Press (1966), p. 234.

36. Serge Joyal, Protecting Canadian Democracy: the Senate You Never Knew (McGill-Queen’s Press) 2003, p. 162.

37. Maurice King, The First Step (Southwest Quebec Publishing) 1993, p. 197.

38. December 21, 1989 letter from then Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney to Robert Libman, then Member of Quebec’s National Assembly for D’Arcy-McGee.

39. Alfred Duclos De Celles, The Makers of Canada (Morang and Co.) 1905, p. 77.

40. Georges-Etienne Cartier, cited by Arthur Sauvé in Quebec and Confederation; A record of the Debate of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec on the Motion proposed by J. N. Francoeur (translation) (1918); p. 30

41. Maurice Tremblay, Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament for Lotbinière, Commons Debates, March 8, 1990, p. 8987.

42. Section 1 was amended approximately 16 months later by Bill 44 so that the referendum held would be on federal offers made as a result of the Charlottetown conference on the constitution

43. The PQ’s 1995 referendum question was also not as strong as Bill 150’s section 1 as it was conditioned upon first making an offer “for a new economic and political partnership” with Canada.

44. Note the absence of one Liberal name: Russell Williams, MNA for Nelligan, who could have just as easily not shown up to vote for any of the Bill’s three readings, or abstained. Instead, Williams bravely voted “no” on Bill 150’s final reading. As a result, Mr. Williams was sanctioned by the Liberal caucus.

45. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/index-eng.cfm 

46. Editorial, “A little Liberal sensitivity, please,” Montreal Gazette, April 5, 2007.

47. Don MacPherson, "Anglo Quebecers will miss Goldbloom”, Montreal Gazette, May 6, 1999.

48. Author’s own research: 98.3% of all Goldbloom’s interventions during his tenure in the National Assembly were in French.

49. Victor Goldbloom, Commission permanente, Debats de l’Assemblee nationale, March 18, 1992, pp CI-2331-48.

50. See "Appendix B -- Bill 199, the Charter of the French and English Languages."

51. www.Galganov.com 

52. Gosselin (Tutor of) v. Quebec (Attorney General), [2005] 1 S.C.R. 238, 2005 SCC 15.

53. The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations, “Response of the government of Canada to the communication of Mr. McIntyre”, December 21, 1990. Note No. 9430.

54. Debbie Horrocks, “Ottawa sides with Quebec to limit English education rights”, Montreal Gazette, December 11, 2008.

55. Supreme Court of Canada; Attorney General of Quebec v. Quebec Association of Protestant School Boards et al., [1984] 2 S.C.R. 66. At pages 82 and 84.

56. Jean Chrétien, Constitution of Canada (Parliamentary committee); Hansard; January 16, 1981; pp. 39:23-4.

57. Jean Chrétien, Constitution of Canada, Op. Cit.

58. Warren Allmand, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and of the House of Commons on the Constitution of Canada; Issue No. 4; November 13, 1980; P. 4:81.

59. Hon. Warren Allmand (Notre-Dame-de-Grace), Commons Debates, December 1, 1981; p. 13589.

60. Editorial, Montreal Gazette, April 17, 2007.

61. Pierre Trudeau, Senate Debates, 30 mars 1988; p. 2988.

62. MaxYalden, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and of the House of Commons on the Constitution of Canada; Issue No. 11; Thursday, September 7, 1978; P. 11:36.

63. “Quebecers must remain open”; Jean Charest; Montreal Gazette; Oct. 30, 2007.

64. The Constitutional Committee of the Quebec Liberal Party (1980 Beige Paper); A new Canadian Federation, page 34.

65. This chapter is, in parts, an elaboration of my article “The Implications of Accommodation” that appeared in the May 1990 issue of Policy Options.

66. Devine v. Quebec (Attorney General), [1988] 2 S.C.R. 790 (1988)

67. Ford v. Quebec (Attorney General), [1988] 2 S.C.R. 712

68. Ford v. Quebec, 36.

69. Ford v. Quebec, 44.

70. Ford v. Quebec, 61.

71. Marc V. Levine, The Reconquest of Montreal, Temple University Press, Philadelphia (1990), p. 200.

72. Don MacPherson, “Marketplace doing better job of protecting French than government”, Montreal Gazette, June 23, 2007

73. “Citing Bill 101's Santa clause", Montreal Gazette, Dec. 2. 2007.

74. www.angryfrenchguy.com, “The Montreal Gazette is Lying to You #234“, April 9, 2008. See: http://tinyurl.com/oxutxt

75. Ford v. Quebec, 37.

76. Pierre Trudeau, Debates of the Senate, March 30, 1988, p. 3016.

77. By virtue of section 52.

78. William Johnson, A Canadian Myth, Quebec, between Canada and the illusion of Utopia, Robert Davies Publishing (1994), p. 247.

79. Ford v. Quebec, 73.

80. Steven Bonspiel, “Language cops should save Mohawk” (letter), Montreal Gazette, June 26, 2005.

81. Brian Mulroney, Commons Debates (Hansard), April 6, 1989, p. 153.

82. Pierre Trudeau, Debates of the Senate (Queen’s Printer for Canada, March 30, 1988), p. 2984.

83. Cuban Penal Code, Article 144, Eric Driggs, cited in note 2 in “Is Venezuela following the Cuban model?,” Cuba facts, Cuba Transition Project (University of Miami), Issue 33, July 2007, found at http://tinyurl.com/39h5ay.

84. Law of Partial Reform of the Penal Code (Venezuela), Article 147, Gaceta Oficial No.5768, April 13, 2005, Cuba facts, cited in note 5.

85. Hubert Bauch, “Bill 101 paved way for peace”, Montreal Gazette, August 25, 2007.

86. Citizens' Forum on Canada's Future; Report to the People and Government of Canada; Canadian Government Publishing Center; Ottawa; June 27, 1991; p. 53.

87. Julius Grey, “Propitiating nationalism”, Montreal Gazette, October 9, 1991 p. B3.

88. Ronald W. Clark, Einstein: the Life and Times (Avon), 2001, p. 115.

89. Pierre Drouilly, “Le référendum du 30 octobre 1995 : une analyse des resultants” (Université du Québec à Montréal) L'année politique au Québec 1995-1996.

90. Pierre Drouilly, “Les non-francophone et le référendum; pratiquement 100% au NON”; Le Devoir, 18 September, 1980, p. 19. “…sur les 500,000 électeurs Anglophones envion qui ont voté le 20 mai dernierz, il n’y en pas 1% (il n’y en a pas 5,000) qui ont dit OUI.” “Nous étions, pour notre part, arrives dans nos calculs à environ 4% de vote néo-québécois pour le OUI: cela représent une moyenne.”

91. Pierre Drouilly, “Le référendum du 30 octobre 1995 : une analyse des resultants” (Université du Québec à Montréal) L'année politique au Québec 1995-1996. “Partant d'un vote non francophone presque unanimement reporté sur le NON…”

92. Le Directeur général des elections du Québec. Rapport des résultants officials du scrutiny, Référendum du 20 mai 1980, pp. 179-184.

93. Le Directeur général des elections du Québec. Rapport des résultants officials du scrutiny, Référendum du 30 octobre 1995, pp. 207-210.

94. Approximately 80% voting Democrat. See: Rod Young, “African American Voting Patterns”, www.suite101.com , Aug. 7, 2008. Also: “In 2000, Al Gore won an historic 90 percent of the African American vote”, Donna Brazile, “African Americans crucial to Democratic victory”, www.blackcommentator.com , January 29, 2004. See also: Michael Kelly, "Segregation Anxiety," New Yorker, Nov. 20, 1995; p. 44.

95. Jacques Parizeau, Conférence de presse, October 31, 1995.

96. Author’s translation. L'année politique au Québec 1995-1996., Op. Cit. “Évidemment, l'ensemble des électeurs amérindiens a fortement appuyé le NON (90,4%), mais on notera cependant qu'avec un appui de presque 10% pour le OUI, les Amérindiens se démarquent considérablement des autres électeurs non francophones. En fait, si les anglophones et les allophones du Québec avaient appuyé le OUI dans les mêmes proportions que les Amérindiens, le OUI aurait remporté le référendum avec 52% des voix environ.”

97. Pierre Drouilly “Les francophone et le referendum", Le Devoir, 25 July 1980, p. 9.

98. Drouilly, L'année politique au Québec 1995-1996. “En effet, au-delà d'un vote francophone global de 60% pour le OUI…”

99. See Figure 2 -- the Ridings of Quebec West in the chapter of the same name.

100. Drouilly, Le Devoir, Op. Cit.

101. Pierre Drouilly, L'année politique au Québec 1995-1996, Op. Cit. See note 8 “…nous estimons à 82,3% le pourcentage de francophones au Québec en 1991, à 8,9% celui des anglophones et à 8,8% celui des allophones.”

102. See: "Appendix B -- Language Demographics for all 125 Quebec Ridings."

103. See the chapter entitled "Quebec West: the demographics."

104. Daniel Latouche, “10 reasons for sovereignty,” Montreal Gazette, October 31, 1991, p. B3.

105. Much of what follows is a reworking and updating of my April, 1989 treatise The Two Question Referendum, the subject of the September 1989 cover story in L’Aut Journal.

106. Jean-Claude LeClerc, “Drop Double Talk”, Montreal Gazette, September 20, 1991, p. B-3.

107. Randy Boswell, “Poll: Quebec will stay with Canada”, Vancouver Sun, June 23, 2008.

108. Neil Mullan, “Mixed message from Quebec poll”, Socialism Today, Issue #35, February, 1999.

109. Jacques Parizeau, Press Conference, October 31, 1995.

110. Pierre Trudeau, Senate Debates, March 30, 1988, p. 2999.

111. Parti Quebecois “La souveraineté: des réponses à vos questions,” Service des communications du Parti Quebecois, 1er trimestre 1995.

112. Pierre Drouilly, “Le succes des Partis egalite et unite”, Le Devoir, October 4, 1989, p. 9.

113. “Separate Quebec would be better for anglos: Dion,” Montreal Gazette, Sept. 26, 1991.

114. Approximately $8 billion in 2008: cbc.ca, “Quebec gets less in Ottawa's proposed equalization plan,” November 3, 2008.

115. Jean-Luc Migué, ”L’essor ou le declin du français”, Le Devoir, May 13, 1993. P. A9 (author‘s translation).

116. Lionel Albert, “Why Mordecai Richler doesn't speak French,” The Report Newsmagazine (United Western Communications), April 2, 2001.

117. Lorne Shapiro (Letter to the Editor); Montreal Gazette; February 16, 1992;p. B3).

118. Statistics Canada. 2007. Profile of Language, Immigration, Citizenship, Mobility and Migration for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order), 2006 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 94-577-X2006007. Ottawa cited by the Office of Commissioner of Official Languages found at: www.Ocol-col.go.ca/htm/provinces e.php 

119. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moncton#Demography

120. Daniel Latouche, “The morning after; A sovereign Quebec will have to scrap restrictions on English”, Montreal Gazette, September 11, 1991, p. B3.

121. The English-speaking community an integral part of a sovereign Quebec; le Service des communications du Parti Quebecois (1993), p. 21.

122. M.T.T. [MEDIA Tapes and Transcripts] Ltd., Journal Interview, January 21, 1992, pp. 6-8.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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